A.     Answer the following question in not more than 20 words.

Q1.      Define resources.

Ans.     Anything that satisfies human needs is called a resources.

Q2.      What are natural resources? Give two example.

Ans.     Resources  which are provided by nature are natural resources. Eg.- air, water.

Q3.      What is technology?

Ans.     The application of the latest knowledge and skill is doing or making things is called technology.

Q4.      What is meant by recycling? Name a resource that can be recycled.

Ans.     Some resources can be reclaimed from discarded things and used again and again. This is known as recycling. Iron can be recycle.

Q5.      What is a reserve?

Ans.     A reserve is that part of an actual resource which can be utilized at a sufficiently low cost with the available technology but is kept for future use.


Q1.      Differentiate between human resource and man-made resource. Give suitable examples.



Human Resources


Man-made resources


Human beings and their qualities abilities are called human resource.


Resources created by human beings are man-made resources.


Knowledge skill are example.


Houses, road are the example.

Q2.      With the help of an example, distinguish between actual and potential resources.

Ans.     The force of following water and wind were potential resources until we learnt to generate power from them. Now they are actual resources.

Q3.      What do you understand by conservation of resources?

Ans.     Conservation resources means protecting them from getting polluted or depleted so that they can be used in future. Conservation helps us use our resources in such a  way that present needs can be met without destroying the ability of future generations to meet their need.

C.      Distinguish between renewable and non renewable resources. Give two example of each. Discus whether renewable resources can ever be exhausted.

Ans.     Renewable resources are those which are present in unlimited quantities or are constantly being generated by natural process or can be generated by us.

Non renewable resources are those that were produced in the past by natural processes that occurred by change and may not occur again.

Renewable resources:- like sunlight, wind, air etc, are inexhaustible. They are present in such vast amounts that human consumption for various purposes does not affect their total quantities much. Our activities can, however, make these resources unusable. Eg.- If air become polluted, we cannot breathe it even if it is abundant.

Q2.      What is sustainable development? Why is it required? Mention any three ways in which resources can be sustained.

Ans.     The use of resources in such a way that present need can be met without destroying the ability of future generations to meet their needs is known as sustainable development.

            Three ways are:-

i)                    Preventing pollution

ii)                  Preserving the biological diversity on earth.

iii)                Preventing wastage and excess consumption of resources.




Q1.      What is arable land? How much of India’s land is arable?

Ans.     One-tenth of the world’s land is arable (suitable for growing crops).

Q2.      What is soil profile?

Ans.     The different layers of soil are known as horizons. The complete vertical sequences of horizons is known as soil profile.

Q3.      Name any two regions that suffers from water scarcity.

Ans.     Among the areas that already face water storages are northern and southern Africa.

Q4.      What is a land slide?

Ans.     A land slide occurs when rocks loosened by weathering move down a slop due to gravity.

Q5.      Mention three ways of saving water.

Ans.     Ways of saving water are :-

1)                  Storing water for the dry season, diverting surplus water from regions to dry regions.

2)                  Rain water harvesting collecting rain water for future use.

3)                  The use of sprinklers and dripping pipes to irrigate field saves water.


Q1.      Why are well developed soil found mostly in the low latitudes?

Ans.     Moisture and higher temperature quicken the chemical reactions involved in soil formation. Therefore, in the warm, wet low latitudes, thick and well-developed soils are quite common.

Q2.      Write briefly about regur soil.

Ans.     A black soil called regur is found in the north-western part of the Deccan Plateau. It has been formed by the weathering of basalt.           

Q3.      What are multi-purpose river valley projects?

Ans.     Most of these projects simultaneously serve several purposes like irrigation, flood control and production of hydroelectricity. They are known as multipurpose river valley projects.

Q4.      Explain how ecofriendly methods can control soil pollution.

Ans.     Soil pollution by chemicals can be reduced by using natural enemies of pests instead of pesticides, and natural manures instead of chemical fertilizer.


Q1.      What do you understand by pattern of land use? Explain with the pattern changes. Draw table to show India’s land is used.

Ans.     Different purpose of the available land are ste aside for different purposes sich as crop cultivation, grazing, forestry, housing, industries transportation, and so on.

                        For example, a mineral- rich area used for agriculture or housing in the absence of mining technology may be converted into a mine when suitable technology becomes available.



Arable land more than 50%

Forested land A little more than 20%

Pasture 40%

Others remainder.

Q2.      Briefly describe any three methods of soil conservation.

Ans.     Three methods are:-

            Afforestation is very effective in checking soil erosion.

            In steeply sloping terrain, terracing helps control soil erosion.

            On gentler slopes, contour ploughing (ploughing along countours, or lines joining points of equal elevation) checks erosion.

Q3.      How can we deal with water pollution?

Ans.     Water pollution can be controlled by treating industrial and domestic wastes suitably before dumping them into water bodies.

            Natural pesticides and fertilizers should be used because many chemicals present in the synthetic ones are non biodegradable.

            Water hyacinth plant can be use and some other plants filter out toxic substance like lead compounds from industrial wastes.