Class: 6      HISTORY


A             Answer The following questions in 20 words.

Q1.         Define the term history.

Ans.       History may be defined as a careful and systematic study of past events on the basis of available material remains and records. History is a greek word, it means to know about the past.

Q2.         What is chronology?

Ans.       The historian arranges past events in order of time, that is, events that happened first followed by events that happened later. This order is called chronology.

Q3.         What is the origin of the name bharatvarsha?

Ans.       In ancient times, India was believed to be situated in an island continent called jambudweep. It was named after a king named Bharata and the tribe consisting of his descendants, also known as Bharata. To this day, India is known as Bharatvarsha or Bharat.

Q4.         Define the term archaeology.

Ans.       The study of material remains of past human existence is called a archaeology.

Q5.         What are the two main type of sources material available to a historian?

Ans.       The evidence are called source material. They are divided into two parts:

                                                                Source of history



Literary ( written)

Archaeological (non-written )


1)   Religious literature

2)  Secular literature

1)   Monument, 2)   Coins  3) Inscriptions,

4)   Epigraphy


Q6.         Mention three types of information that coins provide.              

Ans.       Three type of information that coins provide are –

                Scholors can gather information about

-          The ruler who issued it

-          The period of his reign

-          And about some of the social and economic conditions of his time.

Q3.         What is a manuscript? Mantion two materials on which manuscripts were written in ancient India.

Ans.       Handwritten documents or records are known as manuscripts. In ancient India before paper was made, people wrote on dried leaves, barks of birch trees etc. They also wrote on dried skins of sheep and goats known as parchment eg. Bhojpatra ( Birch bark), palm leaves

B             Answer the following questions in not more than 40 words

Q1.         Whay was the progress made by man during the ancient period?

Ans.       During the ancient period man evolved from a mere hunter and food – gatherer to a former and then to a trader gradually, he established cities and later on large kingdoms.

Q2.         What are artefacts? Of what importance are artefacts in the understanding of man’s past?

Ans.       Articles such as tools, weapons, pottery, small sculptures toys, coins, jewellary etc, made and used by man are called artefacts.

                                By studing the remains of artefacts historians can tell us about the skills man  had mastered and about man’s lifestyle.

Q3.         What kind of information can a historian get from a study of inscriptions?

Ans.       Inscriptions provide a lot of information, like names of kings, dates of important events, extents of kingdoms, and information about the languages in use and the literary skills of the time.

C             ANSWER IN 100 WORDS:-

Q1.         Explain what you understand by BC and AD, give an example to show how we calculate the number of years between a date in BC and AD.

Ans.       The year before the birth of Christ are expressed in BC or ‘Before Christ’. All dates before the birth of Christ are counted backwards. On the other hand AD stands for ’ Anno Domini’ or the ‘The year of the Lord’ It stands for the years after the ‘Birth of christ’.

                                For example the year 200s can be written as AD 2008. AD is written before the number. Where as, the dates of BC go backwards.

                NAME THE FOLLOWING –

                Name an ancient language Prakrit. An ancient script  Brahmi.  The first to use the name India  The  Greeks.  An eg. Of monument  sanchi  stupa.  Two eg. Of artefacts   tools, coins.   Two eg. Of inscriptions  Clay tablet, pillars.  A river that has dried up   Saraswati.  AD means  Anno Domini.  BC means Before Christ.  Period having no written records  Prehistory.


1.       Prehistory à  The period of man’s existence for which we have no written records is called prehistory.

2.       Source material  à  In history, the evidence are called source material. They may be divided into two categories – archaeological and literary.

3.       Archaeology à  The study of material remains of past human existence is called archaeology.

4.       Archaeologist  à  A person who studies such remains ( eg.-artefacts, buildings, bones)

5.       Inscriptions  à  Writings engraved on rocks, pillars, metal plates, clay tablets walls of temples, houses and tombs and so on are called inscriptions.

6.       Monuments  à  Temples, forts, palaces and other structures built for some special purpose are called monuments.

7.       Literary source material  à  All written records of the past are literary source material.

8.       Religious literatures à  Writtings are religious themes are called religious literature. The Vedas of the Hindus.

9.       Secular literatures à  Literature not connected with religion is called secular literature.

-------------------------------  X  --------------------------------



Q1.         How did the ability to stand erect help the first manlike creature?

Ans.       The ability to stand erect helped the first manlike creature to balance on his feel and walk erect.

Q2.         How does observing today’s  tribal help archaeologists?

Ans.       Observing today’s tribal  helped archaeologist to know about the Paleolithic man ( life of the primitive man).

Q3.         Why is Paleolithic man called a hunter – gatherer?

Ans.       Paleolithic man was called hunter – gatherer because they hunted wild animals and birds, gathered berries, nuts, fruits and tubers. He wandered from place to place in search of food.

 Q4.        What are habitation cum factory sites?

Ans.       Paleolithic man worbad and lived at the same place at the sites. These were called habitation –cum – factory sites.

Q5.         What are core tools?

Ans.       The tools which are made by chipping off pieces  from chunks of rock or hand – sized pebbles are called core tools.

Q6.         What  were hand – axes used for?

Ans.       Hand – axes used for doing heavy works like cutting trees digging the earth for roots and tubers, breaking bones etc.

Q7.         What are flake tools?

Ans.       Flake tools were made from the sharp pieces that broke off while shaping core tools. These were useful for chopping meat and skinning animals.

Q8.         How do we know that fire was known to Paleolithic man?

Ans.       Remains of ash at some Paleolithic sites led to the conclusion that fire was known to Paleolithic man.

Q9.         Where is Hunsgi situated?

Ans.       Hunsgi, in Karnataka, is situated in the shorapur  Doab, that is the land between the river Krishna and its tributary Bhima.

B         ANSWER IN 40 WARDS

Q1.         What was man’s first major discovery? Mention any three of its uses.

Ans.       Man’s first major discovery was fire. The three uses of fire are ;-

-          It could keep him warm.

-          It could be useful to light up dark caves.

-          It could be useful to roast meat.

Q2.         How can archaeologists tell that the Deccan in Paleolithic times had a wetter climate than it has today?

Ana.       Archaeologists tell that the Deccan in Paleolithic times had a wetter climate than it has today because archaeologists found that remains of animals like the Indian rhinoceros and wild ox which prefers wet climate.

Q3.         How did the Paleolithic people of the Deccan trap large animals?

Ans.       Paleolithic people of Deccan trap large animals by digging large pits and covered with leaves and twigs  to hide them  from view . Large animals that feel into the pits and could not get out were killed.

Q4.         How do we know that some of the tools found in the Deccan might have had handles?

Ans.       The Deccan people often hunted with hand axes and appears having wooden handles although the wooden parts have decayed, the presence of a groove on some choppers and hand axes has led archaeologists to draw such a conclusion.

C             ANSWER IN 100 WORDS:

Q1.         How did man initially use pebbles and stones? How did he start designing tools from stones?

Ans.       Man initially used pebbles and stones for making tools. The tools used for hunting and to kill animals and for feeding them. Stone tools were of two kinds-  1)  Core tools  2)  Flake tools.

                Core tools are used for cutting trees, digging and breaking bons.

                Floke tools are used for chopping and skinning animals.

Q2.         Why did Paleolithic man form groups? Describe life within such a group.

Ans.       Paleolithic man realized  the advantage of living in groups. It enabled him to hunt large animals and to share food, which was scarce and decayed easily. It also provided security against natural dangers.

                                Groups were not very large. The members of a group cooperated with one another and their collective efforts helped them develop new skills.

                Paleolithic man’s life was full of danger and his lifespan was only 20 to 25 years.

                                --------------------------X ---------------------------------


THE FIRST FARMERS & HERDERS                                                                                                       

A             ANSWER IN 20 WORDS:

Q1.         Name two religions in India where Mesolithic sites have been found.

Ans.       In India, Mesolithic sites have been found in Mysore and in Western and central India.

Q2.         Men two types of archaeological sources about man life in Mesolithic

Ans.       Our knowledge about the life of Mesolithic man in India has been derived mainly from two types of sources-  Tools  and burials.

Q3.         What do you understand by domestication?

Ans.       All processes by which plants and animals are brought under human control are together called domestication. It began in the Mesolithic Age, when man learnt to grow crops and tame animals.

Q4.         Mention some regions in India where Neolithic tools have found.

Ans.       Some regions in India where Neolithic tools have been found Mehrgah, Burzahom, microlethis and bone tools have been found there.

Q5.         What made up a typical Neolithic village?

Ans.       The people of Neolithic  village  carried out activities like farming, herding, hunting gathering and fishing in groups. The tribes jointly owned natural wealth such as land, forests, water sources.. The village in Mehrgah has rectangular houses made of mud and mud bricks. While in Burzahom people lived in deep pits that had steps leading into them thatched roofs supported by post covered pits. These all made a typical Neolithic village.

Q6.         What kind of work did women, children, old people do in a Neolithic community?

Ans.       The division of work depended mostly on age, wisdom and physical strength. Men had occupations such as hunting and ploughing and grazing large heards of animals. Women took care of home and children. Women, children and old people performed.

Q7.         How did Neolithic people dispose of their dead?

Ans.       The dead were buried, sometimes in wens along with objects that they used during their lifetime. This shows that Neolithic man believed in life after death. Cremation was  also practiced.

Q8.         What are megaliths?

Ans.       ‘Mega’ means large ‘lith’ means stones so megaliths means large stones. Megaliths are large pieces of stones which were used by Neolithic man to mark burial places. It is rectangle in shape. Anumber of megaliths have been found at sites such as Adichanallur in south India.

Q9.         Where is Mehrgarh situated?

Ans.       Mehrgarh is situated at near the Bolan Pass in Pakistan.

B             ANSWER   WITHIN 40 WORDS:

Q1.         What are microliths? How did Mesolithic man use microliths?

Ans.       ‘Micro’ means small and ‘liths’ means stone. So, microliths means small stones. Microliths were usually stone  blades ranging from one of five centimeters in length. Some of them were fixed on wood or bones and used as spears, saws, knives and arrows,

Q2.         Explain how man might have discovered the magic link between seed and plant.

Ans.       Mesolithic man discovered the food value of the seeds of certain grasses such as barley and wheat. He began to gather these for food seeds that fell at the time of gathering or

                Seeds  in discarded vegetable remains might have sprouted and suggested the magic link between seed and plant.

Q3.         What do Mesolithic paintings usually depict? What information do they give us?

Ans.       Mesolithic paintings usually depict various activities of Mesolithic people and they also tell us about Mesolithic methods of hunting, fishing, collecting honey, religious worship and so on.

Q4.         What is a tribe? Mention one way in which we can draw conclusions about the lifestyle of Neolithic  people?

Ans.       A group of families who were closely related and shared the same customs, beliefs and methods of worship. The customs and practices of present – day tribes living in remote regions have not changed much over the ages. By observing them, we can draw conclusions about the lifestyle of the Neolithic tribes.

Q5.         Write about the occupations of the Neolithic people of mehrgah.

Ans.       Farming and animal  rearing were the occupations of the Neolithic people of Mehrgah. They grew crops such as barley, wheat etc. and other plants such as cotton. They domesticated and kept animals such as cattle, sheep goats and buffaloes.

C             Give ANSWER within 100 words;

Q1.         How did farming and herding change man’s life?

Ans.       In the Indian subcontinent, Neolithic people practiced hunting- gathering as well as farming and herding.

Farming was well developed at some places like Mehrgah and Daojali Hading. The people of Mehrgah grew wheat, barley and cotton and kept cattle, sheep, goats and buffalo.

                                ---------------------------------  X  ---------------------------------------





Q1.         Name four important sites of the Indus Vally civilization.

Ans.       Four important sites of the Indus Vally Civilisation are

i)                    Rupear in Punjab

ii)                   Banawali in Haryana

iii)                 Kalifangan in Rajasthan

iv)                 Lothal, Rangpur, dholavira and Rojdi in Gujrat.

Q2.         What tells us that Harappans grew wheat and barley?

Ans.       Grains found on the cracks on the threshing  floors show that the Harappans grew wheat and barley.

Q3.         Write about the street plan of a typical Indus city.

Ans.       The typical Indus city was divided into rectangular blocks by wide roads cutting each other at right angle.

Q4.         Mention some important crafts of the Harappans.

Ans.       Some important crafts of the harappans are pot making toy – making and sculpture, spinning and weaving, metal – casting, brick – making, seal – making, jewellery making.

Q5.         Prove with one example that the Harappans knew the art of weaving.

Ans.       The statuette of a shout – clad man and terracotta figurines of woman wearing skirts are evidences that the people were skilled in the art of spinning thread and weaving, cloth.

Q6.         Why do we not understand the inscriptions on Harappan seals?

Ans.       We do not understand the inscriptions on Harappans seals as nobody has been able to dicipper the Indus script.

Q7.         W hat do you know about the weights and measures used by Indus merchants?

Ans.       The Indus merchants used uniform weights and measures.

Q8.         Mention one purpose for which the Indus people used large urns.

Ans.       The Indus people believed in life after death .They bured their dead, often in large urns, also with food, ornaments and the articles used by them in their life.

Q9.         Write about one of lothal’s main industry.

Ans.       Lothal had a flourishing bead – making industry which made beads of terracotta stone, shells etc.

Q10.       What possibly led to the decline of the Indus civilization?

Ans.       The exact causes of the decline of this grea civilization are not known. It is suggested that the cities might have been destroyed by earthquakes floods or a change in the course of the Indus.

B             Ans in 40 wards

Q1.         Why is the Indus civilization also called the Harappan civilization.

Ans.       Since the remains found at all these sites are very similar to those found at Harappa and Mohenjo – daro, they are believed to belong to one single civilization the Indus Vally Civilisation or Harappan civilization.

Q2.         What do you know about the great Bath at Mohenjo – daro?

Ans.       The great Bath at Mohenjo – Daro shows how good the Indus people were at engineering and planning. The inner walls were treated to prevent seepage. Stairs descending into the bath were used for cleaning it . There were even changing room around the bath.

Q3.         Mention a few things depicted  on the Indus seals are most of them have short inscriptions and the impression of a bull, buffalo, tiger, goat, rhinoceros or an elephant. Some seals show a male god . Some have a hump at the back, which has a hole in it.

Q4.         Mention some important architectural features of Dholavira.

Ans.       One of the largest Harappan cities excavated in India is Dholavira in Khadir Island in the Ran of Kachch. The city has three parts – a citadel, a middle town and a lower town. The citadel and the middle town are enclosed within high walls provided with gateways. Stone has been used in the construction of some of the buildings. The lower town is not enclosed with a wall.  

C             ANS IN 100 WORDS:

Q1.         Explaim how cities areas. How is city life different from village life?

Ans.       A city covers a large area than a village and has a large population. Village life is simple because village people have similar needs and similar occupations. In contrast city life is more complex as city people have many different activities and hence a wide range of needs and occupations.City life requires administric  bodies, language and script, and form of organized worship and cultural expressions.

Q2.         Briefly describe a typical house of the Indus Civilization.

Ans.       Every house had two or more room with small windows a bathroom, a kitchen and a courtyard.

Q3.         What suggests that the Indus people carried on overseas trade?

Ans.       Articles made of materials that were not available in the region have been excavat ed. This suggests that long distance trade existed. A seal depicting a seagoing ship suggests that there was overseas trade.

II.            GIVE ONE WARD ANS.

1)      A part of the Indus city on high level  Citadel.

2)      An important seaport of Harappan civilization Meluha.

3)      Flourishing bead making industry  Lothal.

4)      The Indus cities had covered ----- system.


1)      Name two structures of Mohenjo – Daro –Great Bath , Granary.

2)      Two cities excavated in India. ---Dholavira,  Lothal.    

3)      Period during which both copper and tools were used.—Chalcolithic age.

4)      First metal used by man  -- copper.

5)      Name two metal used –Copper, Bronze.

6)      Two occupations of the Indus people.--- Farming, Weaving.

-----------------------------  X  ------------------------------




Q1.         Why is the Vedic Age so called?

Ans.       In Indian history, the period 1500 BC to 600 BC is called the Vedic Age as most of the information about this period is derived from vedic literature.

Q2.         With which modern Indian states does the region Saptasindhu coincide?

Ans.       The region region  Saptasindhu  coincides modern Haryana and undivided Punjab.                          

Q3.         What were the two main occupations of the Rigvedic Aryans?

Ans.       Growing crops such as wheat , barley and rice, and rearing cattle were the main occupations of the early Aryans. The cow was central to their lives.

Q4.         Name some popular pastimes of the vedic people.

Ans.       The usual pastime of the Aryans were chariot, racing, hunting, gambling, music and dancing.

Q5.         Mention one way in which the discovery of iron helped the Vedic period.

Ans.       The use of iron tools enabled them to clear the dense jungles of the region.

Q6. Where did children receive education in the later Vedicperiod?

Ans.       Girls received education at home. A boy spent his student life in a gurukul, where the guru lived with his family and pupils.

Q7.         What might grave goods tell us about the dead person?

Ans.       Historians can learn a lot of things by studying graves. By examining a skeleton for instance they can find out the sex and age of the dead person and the goods placed in a grave give them ideas about the social and the economic status of the dead person.

B             ANS IN 40 WORDS:

Q1.         Briefly describe the composition and function of the sabha and the samiti in the Rigvedic period.

Ans.       The sabha (a small committee of select village orders) and the samiti (the general assembly).The samiti chose the rajan .

Q2.         How did the methods of religious worship change from the early vedic period to the later vedic period.

Ans.       The early rigvedic Aryans worshipped the forces of nature such as Prithvi, Agni, Varun, Indra, Surya and Vayu. In the later Vedic period the methods of religious worship change. They were replaced by Prajapati the creator, Vishnu the preserver and Shiva the destroyer.

Q3.         How did the people of Inamgaon dispose of dead?

Ans.       The dead were buried in pits dug in the floor of the house itself. Dead adults were usually buried directly in the pits. A died child was buried in a container made up of two urns placed horizontally mouth to mouth. The dead were usually laid in a north – south position.

C             ANS WITHIN 100 WORDS:

Q1.         How many casts were there inearly Vedic society?Name them and explain their social functions.

Ans.       There are four sections of casts they are from highest to lowest. They are Brahman, Kshatriya, Vaishya and Shudra.

-          The priests, who looked after religious matters and recited prayers,were Brahmans.

-          The king and the warriers who protected the trible from harm, were kshatriyas.

-          The Vaishyas were mainly farmers and craftsmen.

-          Those who worked for others were Shudras.

Dasas and those Aryans who disobeyed social riles were also considered as Shudras Later, dasa means slave. The system of social division based on occupation later developed into the caste system and now varna means caste.

Q2.         Compare the position of the king in the early Vedic Age and the later Vedic Age.

Ans.       Early Vedic period is the tribal chief who was called rajan. He led his tribe in war and maintain ed law and order. He also offered prayers on behalf of the tribe. He received a bali for his services. The rajan was assisted by officials such as the commander –in – chief, the chief priest and the village headman. In later Vedic period the rajan who was now a king who had a proper army and a kingdom. His prestige depended on the extent of the area he controlled. He adopted lofty titles like samrat and Maharajadhiraja.

                                ------------------------------  X  --------------------------------------------



A        Ans . within 20 words:

Q1.         What is a dynasty?

Ans.       A series of rulers belonging to the same family is called a dynasty.

Q2.         Who wrote Arthashastra? What is it about?

Ans.       Chanakya also known as kautilya wrote Arthashastra. It is about how a government should run.

Q3.         Name three great rulers of the Maurya dynasty are Chandragupta Maurya his son Bindusara and Bindusara’s son Ashoka.

Q4.         What was the extent of Ashoka’s empire?

Ans.       Ashoka’s empire extended roughly from Hindukush and the Himalayas in the north to the river Pennar in the south.

Q5.         What effect did Kalinga war have on Ashoka?

Ans.       There was a great change in Ashoka’s attitude after the Kalinga war. He gave up war and adopted the path of peaceful conquest. He called this new policy Dhammavijaya.

Q6.         What was Ashoka’s dhamma based on?

Ans.       Ashoka’s dhamma, based on tolerance, nonviolence and respect for elders, was deeply influenced by Buddhism.

Q7.         How did the Maurya king personally keep a check on his people?

Ans.       The maurya king frequently went on secret inspection tours to see that everything was running properly and by adopting spy system.

Q8.         What did the mauryan army consist of?

Ans.       The mauryan army consisted of infantry, cavalry, chariots, elephants, transport and navy. The soldiers received high and regular salaries.

Q9.         Why did the mauryas maintain a spy system?

Ans.       Mauryas maintain a spy system because according to the Arthashastra a ruler can ensure justice to his people only when he  keeps himself fully informed about the goings- on within his empire.

Q10.       Why did Mauryan power decline after Ashoka/

Ans.       Ashok was succeeded by a series of weak rulers. As a result, the system of administration began to collapse.


Q1.         How did james  Prinscep’s  work help historians to learn about Ashoka’s region?

Ans.       A scholar named  james  Prinscep deciphered the script and identified it as Brahmi. The inscription provided invaluable information about the reign of a kind ruler named Ashoka and the extent of his empire.

Q2.         How were the cities administrated under the Mauryan.

Ans.       Mauryan cities were administrated by a committee which took care of the department of industries, foreigners registration of births and death, sanitation, weights and measures and public utilities.

Q3.         Write brief about the Mauryan system of taxes.

Ans.       Mauryan system of taxes are-

-          Tax was collected in cash and kind.

-          Land tax, which varied from one sixth to one-fourth of the produce, was the main source of revenue.

-          Other major sources of revenue were customs duty, sale tax and taxes on crafts and trade. The Arthashastra also mentions a water tax.

Q4.         What measure did Ashoka adopt for the welfare of his subjects?

Ans.       The Mauryas undertook the construction of roads , well, rest houses and canals. Ashoka planted fruit – bearing trees on both sides of the roads for the comfort of travelers. He also set up hospitals for the sick.

Ans. Within 100 words:

Q1.         What steps did Ashoka take to spread dhamma?

Ans.       Ashoka take to spread dhamma  are:-

1)      Ashoka issued edicts to spreads the message of dhamma. He had his edicts engraved on pillars and rocks, and set up in public places all over the empire. In his edicts Asoka addressed himself as the father of his people.

2)      Ashoka himself toured the kingdom to spread the message of dhamma.

3)      Ashoka appointed special officers called dharmamahamantra to interpreat and carry out royal orders.

Q2.         Briefly describe the central administration under the Mauryas.

Ans.       The Maurya king directly ruled the regions around Magadha. The king was the commander- in – chief of the armed forces and also the chief justice of the land. The officials performed functions such as a collecting taxes and punishing those who disobeyed laws. The king frequently went on secret inspection tours to see that every thing was running properly.

                                --------------------------------  X  -----------------------------------------



A             Ans. Within 20 words

Q1.         What is the meaning of Upanishad?

Ans.       The Vedic texts called the Upanishads record knowledge given by teachers to pupils sitting aat their feet, often through questions and answers.

Q2.         Why did Rishi Gautama accept Satyakama as his student?

Ans.       Satyakama  Jabala is a great thinker and philosopher, was the son of a low – cast woman named Jabala. He was thought by Rishi Gautama who being impressed by Satyakama’s truthfulness about his low birth accepted him as a student.

Q3.         What did the Buddha mean by middle path?

Ans.       Buddha advised his disciples to follow the middle path that is neither to give up all worldly possession nor to live in luxury.

Q4.         What were Mahavira’s ideas about karma?

Ans.       He believed that a person’s position in life depends on karma of the previous life.

Q5.         Name three regions in Indian where Jainism become popular.

Ans.       Jainism become popular in Rajasthan, Gujarat, Malur and south India.

Q6.         What is meant by sangha?

Ans.       The Buddha andMahavira set up organization called sanghas for those who gave up worddly life and became monks in order to attain enlightment.

B             ANS WITHIN 40 WORDS

Q1.         What lead  to the rise of new religious and philosophical ideas in India in the sixth century BC?

Ans.       New religious and philosophical ideas arose out of the dissatisfaction caused by the social and political conditions of the sixth century BC.

Q2.         According to the Upanishads, how can one attain moksha?

Ans.       The Upanishads state that the atma can attain moksha when it unites with Brahama. This can be achieved through the complete understanding and continuous awareness of Brahma.

Q3.         Write briefly on the four ashramas an upper cast man was expected to go through.

Ans.       In Upanishadic times the life of an upper – caste man was divided into four stages called ashramas. These were brahmacharya ( student life ), garhastha (family life ), Vanaprastha ( retirement to forest to meditate) and sanyasa ( giving up everything).

Q4.         Mention any two similarities between Buddhism and Jainism.

Ans.       Two similarities between Buddhism and Jainism are that both religions were against the caste system and ritualism and both are stressed on the equality of all human beings and on ahinsa.

C             ANS. WITHIN 100 WORDS

Q1.         Write about life in a sangha.

Ans.       The Buddha and Mahavira set up organizations called sanghas for those who gave up worldly life and became monks in order to attain enlightment. Buddhist monks were called bhikshu. A woman could join the sangha with the permissions of her husband. Nuns were called bhikshinis. The monks and nuns led very simple lives. They spent much of their time on religious studies and meditation. Within the sangha, members enjoyed equal status, without considratio for their caste or wealth.

                                ----------------------------------  X  ----------------------------------